Creation science or scientific creationism is a branch of creationism that strives to provide scientific support for Genesis creation narratives in the Book of Genesis and to reconsider or completely reject scientific facts, paradigms and theories of history, geology, biological evolution, cosmology, linguistics and archeology.
This branch of creationism began to develop in the 1960s as a fundamentalist Christian effort in the United States whose main goal is to reverse the scientific evidence of evolution and prove biblical inappropriateness. Since the beginning, creation science has gained many followers in the United States.
Learning about evolution into graduate programs in the US was gradually introduced after 1900. However, after the WWI, fundamentalist Christianity arose, leading to the development of creationism as an opposition to such learning. Soon certain legislation banned learning about evolution. (ncse.com) The opinion was dominated, and, more importantly, it was expressed a great concern that the past scientific education in public schools has become obsolete.
Creation Science emerged as an organized movement during the 1960s and was heavily influenced by geologist George McCready Price. In his work The New Geology (1923), Price argued the existing explanations of geological history and geological time frames. In the first place he highlighted what he called “new catastrophism”. Price, in general, disputes modern science’s account of natural history, and focuses on geology and its concept of uniformitarianism, but does not give an empirical explanation of the observed phenomena that are compatible with biblical literalism. (Wise, 1998)
The main ideas of creation science include
- The conviction that the Earth was created within the last 5,000-10,000 years;
- The belief that the world did not originate from nothing;
- The idea that fossils found in geological strata were deposited during a cataclysmic flood that completely covered the whole Earth.
The religious foundation creation science is based on the Book of Genesis, more specifically, chapters 1-11, and the texts of creation science that appeared in the 1960s have just been focused on the concepts derived from the literal interpretation of the Bible. In the 70s of the 20th century creation science attracted a great deal of attention from the public, so many school boards made curricula that included this theory in school programs. (Morrison, 2002) Creation science, in general, tries to explain history and science through biblical chronology according to which the first act of creation occurred about 6000 years ago.
Creation science rejects the evolutionary theory by which all living things on earth have a common origin, but it represents a position called baraminology, by which the living world emerged from a unique species called “baramins”.
This theory also includes the concept of catastrophism to reconcile current landforms and fossil distributions with Biblical interpretations. (Ayala, 2017) According to this theory, fossil remains are the result of cataclysmic events such as flood and ice age.
Creationists do not attack only the theory of evolutionism but often criticize other scientific concepts, such as methods of scientific dating or the Big Bang theory.
Young Earth creationists also reject current estimates of how many years the earth and universe exist, claiming that they exist for less than 10,000 years.
Although there are many who advocate creation science, the vast majority of the scientific community thinks that creationism is a mostly religious, not a scientific theory.
Therefore, it can not be considered a science because it is not empirically identified and there are no tentative hypotheses because creation science is a pseudo-scientific attempt to explain the facts from the Bible. The NAS claims that the claims made by creation science can not be tested. Scientists have certainly considered the hypotheses suggested by creation science, but they were rejected, due to lack of evidence.
Claims creation science can not be subjected to important tests because they are not related to natural causes and therefore can not qualify as scientific hypotheses. (Reiss, 2014) The claim that creation science does not represent science is already a religion confirmed by the United States Supreme Court in 1987 and banned its advocacy in public schools.
The main objections
That the scientific community points to creation science are:
- Creation science is not dynamic, correct or progressive;
- Creation science can not be experimentally tested because creativity places supernatural causes beyond the scientific experiment and methods that can be proven;
- Creation science breaks the principle parsimony-parsimony and supports explanations that rely on the slightest assumption, and scientists accept explanations that are supported by facts, and there is no creation in science. (Ibid)
In addition to the science community, creation science is criticized by some mainstream Christian churches, claiming that Genesis’s efforts on scientific basis are useless.
Many Christian churches, including the Anglican, Roman Catholic, Congregationalist, Lutheran and Methodist religions, have an ambivalent view of creation science or have completely rejected it.
Some representatives of the Catholic Church particularly criticized the creation of science for the use of the literal interpretation of certain parts of the Bible that were taken as the basis for scientific creationism.
Today, many debates about the unresponsiveness of creationism, which is defined as “the belief that the universe and living organisms originate from divine creation, is written in the Bible, and not from natural processes such as evolution.”
Creationism is often negated by the worldly Society with the accusations that lacks scientific foundation, but it is compatible with the scientific approach to any topic. Creationism gives explanations of events, places and things in the physical world, not exclusively subjective ideas and abstract concepts. They coincide with the creationist conceptions, and the ways in which they are interconnected are borrowed from creationist interpretations. As coherence is taken from other great scientific ideas in order to connect facts, so is creationism.
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‘’Creation/Evolution Journal’’, https://ncse.com/book/export/html/2106 Web 12. 11. 2017
Wise, U. Donald, ‘’Creationist Geologic Time Scale: an attack strategy for the sciences’’, published in American Scientist, March/April, 1998, vol. 86, n. 2, p. 160-173, http://chem.tufts.edu/science/Geology/Wise/CreationistGeologyRefuted.htm Web 12. 11. 2017
Morrison, Michael, ‘’Genesis 1: Are the Six Days of Creation Literal or Figurative?’’, https://www.gci.org/bible/genesis/sixdays Web 12. 11. 2017
Ayala, Jose, Francisco, ‘’Evolution’’, Last Update: 8-27-2017, https://www.britannica.com/science/evolution-scientific-theory Web 12. 11. 2017
Reiss, Julian, ‘’Scientific Objectivity’’, First published Mon Aug 25, 2014, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-objectivity/ Web 12. 11. 2017